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If the initial and removed thickness of the enamel layer is usually taken into consideration for the alpha and beta dose rate attenuation and self-absorption factors, the thickness of the adjacent tissues dentine, cement is in contrast very rarely considered in the dose rate evaluation.
In order to evaluate to which extent this assumption is correct and how it may impact the external beta dose rate absorbed by the enamel layer, we used DosiVox, a Geant4-based software simulating the interactions of particles within a material for dosimetric purposes Martin et al. With this software, it is now possible to model more complex geometries like fossil teeth, and we performed several simulations with an outer tissue thickness varying between 0 and 2 mm.
Results are presented and discussed hereafter.
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For example, enamel is the outermost layer in human tooth crown, which means that it is in direct contact with the sediment on its external side. In contrast, fossil equid teeth are notoriously famous for having cement capping the external side of the enamel layer.
As a consequence, the sediment is not in direct contact with the enamel. Basically, these two situations have different implications in terms of dose rate evaluation, and especially for the alpha and beta components. In ESR dating, teeth are typically approximated to a succession of thin layers. This tissue is usually cement e. Geometry 1 is illustrated in Fig.
Shown here is the cement-enamel-dentine geometry. In blue italics, the radioactive sources present in each material dental tissues and sediment. Citation: Geochronometria 46, 1; Both the gamma dose rate from the dental tissues and the gamma attenuation by the tooth are considered negligible, unless the tooth is significantly bigger than usual e. Consequently, the alpha and beta dose rate components in dental tissues come from the U decay chain alone.
Instead, the attenuation of the beta particles has to be considered, together with the thickness of the enamel layer removed on both sides.
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Further details about this approach may be found in Duval and references therein. They, however, do not take into consideration the thickness of the tissues adjacent to the enamel layer in the beta dose rate evaluation. Consequently, the choice of either option 1 or 2 may have a non-negligible impact on the calculated age, depending on whether dental tissues carry a significant weight in the total dose rate.
This briefly illustrates the potential impact of the tooth geometry considered for the sample that is being dated. However, this assumption may sometimes be wrong.
For example, the thickness of the cement layer in equid teeth is known to be highly variable depending on the type of tooth, the age at the death of the animal, as well as longitudinally, from the occlusal surface to the roots e. Burke and Castanet, However, it is simply unknown in which extent it may impact the final age result.
Considering a thickness that fulfills the infinite matrix conditions would lead to the calculation of an overestimated beta dose rate value and thus an underestimated US-ESR age if the tissue thickness is thinner than 2 mm. In contrast, considering no dental tissue on the outer side of the enamel layer would underestimate the true beta dose rate and yield thus an overestimated US-ESR age.
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In first instance, the true age of the sample would be located somewhere in between those two calculations. However, this evaluation cannot be considered as fully satisfactory given the magnitude of the uncertainty involved see example above with sample B.
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The mean path length of electrons emitted by these elements depends on the environment considered, and is influenced by different parameters such as water content and chemical composition of the materials. The recent development of DosiVox Martin et al. In our case, it offers the possibility to properly evaluate in which extent the presence of an.